Adventures In Audio with Audio Masterclass
Recording SoftWare for Blind people. Can anybody Please help?



Each channel of the mixing console posesses a panpot (short for 'panoramic

In early mixing consoles the signal could be switched to the left channel,
to the right channel, or divided equally between left and right – center, in
other words.

The panpot can be used to send the signal to any point in the stereo image
between extreme left and extreme right – known as 'hard left' and 'hard right'.

The panpot has what is known as a 'law'. This determines the way the signal
is proportioned according to the position of the panpot.

In some mixing consoles, when the panpot is in its center position, the signal
level is -6 dB compared to hard left or right. This is because the signal
is routed equally to left and right and the two sides add together.

Other consoles use a -3 dB law.

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The object is to maintain a constant signal level no matter where the signal
is panned.

-6 dB is theoretically correct if the stereo signal is later going to
be summed into mono. -3 dB is correct if the signal is to remain in stereo.
Some consoles use a compromise -4.5 dB law.

Most engineers would regard this as a fine distinction, hardly worth bothering

David Mellor

Touring An SSL Console

Touring An SSL Console

DAW virtual mixers are modeled after “classic” analog mixing consoles. Take this SSL tour and learn how a full-blown classic Solid State Logic Duality console actually works.

Learn more...

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David Mellor


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