Adventures In Audio

How to pan an acoustic piano

by David Mellor

Should the bass notes be on the left and the high notes on the right, or the other way round?

Keyboard orientation

If you sit at a piano keyboard, then the bass notes are on your left and the high notes are on your right, so it would seem that this would be the correct way to record the instrument. Pan the bass notes left and the high notes right.

Audience orientation

But what if you are a member of the audience at a piano recital or concert? The piano will be sideways-on, with the player at the left. Since the bass notes have longer strings, their sound comes from the full length of the instrument. The high notes have shorter strings and thus are heard mainly towards the keyboard end. Therefore the high notes come from the left, and the bass notes extend all the way to the right, the reverse of what the player hears.

What the player actually hears

Since the notes of the piano keyboard extend all the way from left to right in even semitone increments, it may seem that the sound from the strings should be the same way in the stereo sound stage from left to right. So the lowest note A is all the way to the left; the highest note C is all the way to the right; Middle C is in the middle and every other note is positioned in proportion.

Audio Masterclass Video Courses

Learn FAST With Audio Masterclass Video Courses

With more than 900 courses on all topics audio, including almost every DAW on the market, these courses are your fast track to audio mastery.
Get a library pass for all 900+ courses for just $25.

This however doesn't take account of the fact that in nearly all pianos, the strings cross over to save length (in a grand) or height (in an upright). It is a very rare piano where the strings are all parallel.

So when you sit down to play the piano, the low notes are 'left-ish' and the high notes are 'right-ish', but there isn't any precise sense of positioning. There is however an even spread from left to right, and this is something that should be captured in a recording.

To pan stereo mics from the player's perspective all that is necessary is to pan the mic that is pointing to, or closer to, the bass end of the piano to the left. Pan the other mic to the right. If the piano is to be mixed in with other instruments then you probably don't want it to sound as wide as the distance between the speakers, so pan the channels inwards to get the width as you want it.

What the audience actually hears

The Audio Masterclass Pro Home Studio MiniCourse


Great home recording starts with a great plan. The Audio Masterclass Pro Home Studio MiniCourse will clear your mind and set you on the right path to success, in just five minutes or less.

In the concert hall, only people in the front couple of rows hear any directional information from the piano at all. Any further back and the direct sound from the instrument is virtually a point source. All of the stereo information comes from the ambience of the auditorium.

So you might consider this if you want your recording of piano to sound like a Beethoven sonata. The close mics should be panned almost center and the ambient mics panned hard-left and hard-right. If you're not using ambient mics, then you will need to add a very natural-sounding reverb. (I should add that panning a stereo pair inwards works better with coincident than spaced mics due to phase issues, so you might want to bear that in mind.)


Sometimes the nature of the equipment we use leads us to create a sound that doesn't correspond all that closely to what would be heard in reality. It is always useful to think about what would be heard naturally without the mics, then aim to mimic that sound in the finished recording.

Thursday February 28, 2019

Like, follow, and comment on this article at Facebook, Twitter, Reddit, Instagram or the social network of your choice.

David Mellor

David Mellor

David Mellor is CEO and Course Director of Audio Masterclass. David has designed courses in audio education and training since 1986 and is the publisher and principal writer of Adventures In Audio.

More from Adventures In Audio...

An interesting microphone setup for violinist Nigel Kennedy

Are you compressing too much? Here's how to tell...

If setting the gain correctly is so important, why don't mic preamplifiers have meters?

The Internet goes analogue!

How to choose an audio interface

Audio left-right test. Does it matter?

Electric guitar - compress before the amp, or after?

What is comb filtering? What does it sound like?

NEW: Audio crossfades come to Final Cut Pro X 10.4.9!

What is the difference between EQ and filters? *With Audio*

What difference will a preamp make to your recording?

Watch our video on linear phase filters and frequency response with the FabFilter Pro Q 2

Read our post on linear phase filters and frequency response with the Fabfilter Pro Q 2

Harmonic distortion with the Soundtoys Decapitator

What's the best height for studio monitors? Answer - Not too low!

What is the Red Book standard? Do I need to use it? Why?

Will floating point change the way we record?

Mixing: What is the 'Pedalboard Exception'?

The difference between mic level and line level

The problem with parallel compression that you didn't know you had. What it sounds like and how to fix it.

Compressing a snare drum to even out the level

What does parallel compression on vocals sound like?

How to automate tracks that have parallel compression

Why mono is better than stereo for recording vocals and dialogue